Health Brings Pleasure

Health Tips

How To Do Your Nails To Look Like You Had Them Professionaly Done

The tips that you can use to become an organized beauty expertise.

You can look for beauty in a number of things.Maybe you like to find wondrous beauty in flowers or art, or in the person you love most. When you look for beauty, you’ll find you feel more beautiful yourself.

Have some Vitamin E on hand. It can be used for many different uses. Vitamin E is excellent for helping skin remain soft and fresh looking. Vitamin E can be used on your cuticles to keep them from splitting and special creams fortified with the vitamin will soften the cuticles.

You can make your favorite liquid foundation by adding a small amount of moisturizer to the bottle. This also help your face to have a fresh look instead of a caked on look while providing important sun protection.

Always wash off all of old makeup before going to bed. Gently scrub your face with a soft cloth and luke-warm water or makeup remover.After this, wash your face like normal with your usual routine. Make-up that stays on your face will clog pores and cause acne.

Drink a lot of water every day to keep skin to stay beautiful.Dehydration can leave your skin and wrinkly. You can fight this by consuming a minimum of eight daily servings of water. You can always add a hint of lime or lemon to make the water too.Your skin will thank you drank lots of water.

This provides the vitamins and minerals your body needs to keep your hair healthy. You can also put rosemary essential oil (preferably scented) to your hair each day to keep your hair strong and healthy.

Brush in a circular motion, from your feet up to your face, take a warm shower and use a gentle cleanser.

Witch Hazel

Replace expensive, exfoliants, and cleansers with castile soap, witch hazel, a mild toner such as witch hazel or white vinegar, and some natural Aloe Vera gel for your moisturizer. These products are good for all skin type. Tea tree oil can be used to create a medicated toner.

You can create your own mouthwash from peppermint oil and purified water. Only use a drop of peppermint oil for every ounce of water. Boil the water first, then put the oil drops into a ceramic or glass bowl or other container that is heat-resistant. Add boiling water for the container. Cover the mixture with a cloth and allow it to cool. Pour it into a sterile container that can be tightly sealed.

When you are applying eyeshadow look down through the mirror. Don’t pull on your eyelids. Looking down will allow you get your eye shadow correctly applied the first application right. You will be able to see your eyelids better and not have to touch them.

Make sure you’re using eye drops regularly throughout your day in order to have sparkling eyes. This will keep your eyes from happening. Keep eyedrops handy in your desk or purse and use them every few hours.

We hope these beauty tips have given you a boost in confidence! You should now have a good idea on where you can begin when you want to build a personal beauty plan. Remember to bookmark this article and come back later if needed!

Depression And Lack Of Sleep Will Undermine Any Beauty Regimen

Have you decided to become more involved in the decision to renew your beauty regimen? There are various techniques you can use.Do you know how to use and apply products properly? If you answered no to this question, the following paragraphs can help you greatly.

Always exfoliate your face is very important.

Heat-activated styling products will actually protect your hair from damaging heat. Using these tools on daily basis can severely harm your hair.

Only apply shimmer in a few areas and only in places where you are sure it will be hit by light.You be able to achieve a lovely glowing effect that looks gorgeous. When using a highlighter, put it on your brows, brows and nose, then choose to set it with loose powder.

This feeds your body needs to keep your hair to retain its luster.You can also put rosemary essential oils to your locks to achieve a similar effect.

Do you find scratches or scratched nails? A good top coat will keep your manicure. Be aware that a top coat is not the same thing as clear nail polish since they’re both different.Purchase top coat for this purpose.

Use a shimmer blush unless your skin is blemish-free and flawless. Shimmer blushes can bring out blemishes and imperfections like scars or acne. You can hide skin flaws by masking blemishes with matte blush.

Petroleum jelly can make your feet and toes.

Weight Loss

Pineapple is an ideal choice to help you lose weight loss goal. Bromelain is the key ingredient for weight loss found in delicious and satisfying fruit. This boosts your metabolism and helps you shed pounds.

Place thin sliced potatoes over your eyes to make them less puffy. Leave the application in place for approximately 10 minutes.

Beauty is the combining of many factors that all have to work together. Skin care plays a major aspect of overall beauty.Men especially, because they don’t realize what an impact it can make.

A top coat of the highest quality topcoat is important to keep your manicure that is going to last.Your manicure will look fresh and pristine for several extra days longer with a quality top coat.

If you have dry skin, you should visit a beautician for specialized moisturizing treatment to your face. This will help eliminate dead skin and freshening the appearance of your complexion.

To conclude, your interest in this article means that you are looking to create or improve your beauty routine. You might have known a little or a lot before reading this piece, but now you hopefully know some new tricks. You’re doing great! Be sure to go over the information here regularly to ensure you are doing things correctly. Be sure to have fun with beauty.

Easy Beauty Tips You Should Know

However, if you’ve never done it before, those products or brushes can be very intimidating pieces of equipment to handle. How does a novice learn to use these tools?

Put a few drops into the bottle and shake it up.This may get you a couple more applications of nail polish.

Exfoliate your skin before you go for a fake tan. This important step ensures that any dead skin cells and smooths out your skin. This will allow the faux tan to appear even and more even. It will look more real and last longer for you.

Skin Looking

Sunscreen keeps your skin looking great. When choosing your sunscreen, you should look for products that contain healthy skincare ingredients and antioxidants. You can keep your skin looking younger and nourished with the right rich protecting ingredients.

Always exfoliate your face is very important.

Vitamin E plays a helpful natural remedy to have on hand.It can be used for a wide variety of beauty purposes. Vitamin E can help keep skin healthy and supple. Vitamin E is also an effective way to soften the cuticles.

With your fingers, put the blush on the top of the cheek, then blend and smooth gently upward toward you temples.

Use a product called “hot spray” prior to running the hair before blow drying it. This product, which big-box retailers like Target and Wal-Mart carry, can prevent split ends before the happen and help hair dry faster. It seals in the moisture and smells terrific!

Only use shimmer in a few areas and only in places where light may enhance it. This will give you a beautiful glow. When using a highlighter, aim for highlighting your cheekbones, nose, then choose to set it with loose powder.

Buy duplicates of your favorite makeup items at a time if you to do so. You should keep them somewhere you can be at home.This can give you prepared should you forget a step when in a rush.

Epsom Salts

Epsom salts are great as beauty routine. Epsom salts can be used to soothe your muscles and work as a laxative. You can put that to problem areas and leave it alone overnight. Your skin will look much better by the next day.

If you love the look of powdered mineral makeup but find that it makes your skin itchy, the culprit could be bismuth oxychloride. This ingredient often irritates skin, but there are also a good number of brands that do not make use of it.

The main factors to pay attention to when you are trying to work on your appearance or that of someone near you is fitness, skin care, skin care and general posture. By taking care of these things, you can build a more beautiful you.

It is important to exfoliate your skin prior to applying a tanning spray. This will help the color go on evenly and it will also look less artificial.

Skin care is necessary in looking beautiful. You can do this by rubbing in lotion to use when your skin fresh and energetic.

Take the time to color your eyebrows. You can do this with an eyebrow pencils or have it done with dye. It will make your eyes and brighten your eyes.

Dry Skin

Keep lotion nearby in your bag for dry skin and other emergencies. You can never tell when you need to quickly fix at a moment’s notice. You can use lotion to remedy dry skin or do some work on a frizzy hair. Squeeze a small amount onto the palm of your palms and run it through your hair.

It is now easy to understand the many benefits of a beauty regime. You will have a lot of fun giving yourself a makeover. With the guidance from this article, you can start making yourself look like a movie star.

Tips On How To Stay Beautiful As You Age

Looking attractive involves many things and not just lucky genetics.Using the following tips can produce great results.

If your eyes are green or hazel, use colors that will highlight the gold and green to almost simulate candlelight. These colors include silvery pewter, shimmery purples, frosty gunmetal gray, and deep purple.

Pimples can sometimes appear from nowhere at times and keep us from looking our best. Leave the toothpaste on for ten minutes or so. This should make the pimple up and gets rid of redness.

With your fingers, add a bit of cream blush to each cheek, then use a gentle tugging motion to spread out the color up toward your temples.

Use a “hot spray” on your wet hair before blow drying it. This product, which big-box retailers like Target and Wal-Mart carry, can be found at stores such as Wal-Mart or Target. It locks in moisturizer and smells fantastic!

Drink a lot of water daily if you want to maintain fresh and fresh. Dehydration can leave your skin dry and causes wrinkles. You can rehydrate your skin by consuming a minimum of eight daily servings of water. You can use flavors to inject some taste into your water tastier. Your skin is going to be grateful you do this!

Drink a glass of milk every day to help with your beauty routine. Research has indicated that drinking milk each day can help your skin and your bones. The protein content in milk will help build muscle. It is also assists in controlling your weight. Milk is an easy way to stay beautiful.

Boar hair brushes are great to help reduce frizzy hair. A surprising number of different people have issues with their hair becoming frizzy. A boar bristle brush will help to reduce frizz while you blow dry.

Curry Leaf Chutney

Curry leaf chutney is something you can battle grey hair. The curry leaf chutney aids in pigment formation of pigmented cells that color your hair color. One teaspoon and you really need.

Use foundation under your makeup cap as a concealer. If you are out of concealer, use the makeup right under your foundation’s cap. This makeup will work perfectly as a concealer because it covers up imperfections due to the thickness of the makeup.

If you have found that mineral makeup powder irritates your skin, try looking for a formula free of bismuth oxychloride. This particular ingredient bothers a lot of ladies, but there are a lot of brands that do not contain this pigment.

A top coat of the highest quality is critical for a manicure last longer. Your manicure can look fresh and pristine for several extra days with a quality top coat.

Facial Skin

If you have facial skin that is dry, you should think about getting some kind of moisturizing treatment done. This type of treatment targets dry facial skin and smooths the face and refreshes and smooths the skin’s appearance by getting rid of dead skin cells.

You will find that this is false however, as the sun is not stronger in the summer than in the winter.Wrinkles and cancer are just a couple of things you should be protecting the skin.

Take a break from using hot tools like curling irons to keep your hair to recover.

Make sure you shave and exfoliate your skin before applying any sort of spray on tan. This will make the color go on evenly and it will look less artificial.

When styling your hair, work in groups, and start at the back.

There is help for under-eye bags and dark circles under your eyes. Use a good moisturizer to massage gentle circles around your eyes. This technique will help your skin look much more refreshed.

Put Vaseline on your feet, cover them with cotton socks, and leave them on overnight. Your feet will be soft when morning from this effort.

Apply a coating of avocado to your body for its healing properties and keep it on for a half hour.

If you choose to apply a self-tanner, you may be wondering if there is anything you could do to correct it.

Sunglasses are a beauty accessory that may or may not diminish someone’s beauty. Whether or not to wear sunglasses is a decision that is up to the individual decision.

Makeup Brushes

Make sure that your makeup brushes clean regularly. Makeup brushes will collect bacteria and germs as you use them.

A secret that supermodels have is that they sleep on their backs. Sleeping the other way around will cause your face creates puffy and you’ll get wrinkles. Your skin can make a quick recovery when you are still young. However, as we age, the wrinkles on your face that come from sleeping on your stomach or side won’t go away so easily. Get used to sleeping in the supine position, and your face will thank you.

Beauty is more than luck. Beauty can be greatly enhanced if you work at it. This can greatly improve your appearance, if you follow the right advice. Hopefully, you can use the tips here to maximize your beauty efforts.

Simple Effective Beauty Tips From The Pros

There are a variety of famous sayings about beauty. Everyone has probably heard that beauty is only skin deep. Beauty does not only mean you look good, but a good looking one too. People may appreciate physical beauty, but it is the personality that makes them stay. The piece that follows will offer insight into how you to see the most of your inner being.

Fill an empty lip gloss pot or a tiny jar with the moisturizer of your preferred moisturizer. Use a small amount of moisturizer to freshen up when your skin is getting dry.

Research as shown that symmetrical faces seem to be the most people find beauty in symmetry. If you wish to look your best, do what you can to maintain this symmetry. Whether that means in your makeup application or your hair, moustache or beard, be sure that both sides look very similar.

You should use the look of your eyebrows with a nightly application of Vaseline. This conditions your eyebrows and shiny. Be sure to focus the Vaseline only on your brows, since it might cause your skin to break out.

If you suffer from red eyes, you will not get the full effect from eye makeup. Carry around a bottle of eye drops wherever you at all times.

This gives you the nutrients your pigments need to continue coloring your hair healthy. You can also apply rosemary essential oil (preferably scented) to your locks to achieve a similar effect.

Brush in a circular motion, from your feet up to your face, take a warm shower and use a gentle cleanser.

Rosewater or cucumbers can be used to ease the puffiness and dark circles under your eyes. These have natural properties that are natural and will lighten skin and cool your eye area. Dip a cotton pad into rosewater or cucumber juice; lay down and place the pads on your closed eyes, and leave the pad over your eyes for 15 minutes.

Petroleum jelly can make your feet and supple.

If you like powdered mineral products but they mess with your skin, the culprit could be bismuth oxychloride. This ingredient often irritates skin, which can hurt your complexion.

Pineapple is an ideal choice to help you look great and keep off excess weight. This fruit contains bromelain. This boosts your metabolism and helps you shed pounds.

As previously stated, beauty is only on the outside. There is no such thing as a perfect person, so be realistic and try to improve both your outer and inner beauty. If you put the above tips into practice, you can manifest all the hidden beauty you have within yourself.

Great Secrets Of How To Stay Your Best!

You also have to do some shopping to find the products that will serve you well. The following article can help you immensely.

Fill an empty lip gloss pot or a miniscule sample jar with the moisturizer of your preferred moisturizer. Use a dab of moisturizer when your skin feels dry.

Put a few drops into the bottle and shake it up. This will extend the nail polish.

Keep moisturizer on hand to keep your skin looking fresh. Keeping your skin moisturized constantly can prevent dryness and any breaking or cracking.

If your eyes are red, you will not get the full effect from eye makeup. Keep a bottle of eye drops or saline solution in your pocketbook.

Makeup Removal Wipes

Keep wipe around for makeup removal wipes in the same place you keep them with your makeup. Beauty experts use these wipes to fix for a mishap during makeup applications. You can make changes like a pro with minimal effort or investment. Keep makeup removal wipes handy at all times for a quick fix to daily beauty routine.

When you are putting on eyeshadow look down and into a mirror. Don’t pull on your eyelids. Looking down will allow you get the first application right. This will make it easier for you to be able to see your lid clearly.

A cheap and simple way to clean your average kitchen sponge. Kitchen sponges clean bathroom surfaces as well as other types and are often much less costly.

You need to wear sunscreen if you want your skin to stay healthy. Sunscreen should be worn year round, but for healthy skin, to keep wrinkles away. Your hands and face are the places your skin is most vulnerable during winter.

Beauty depends on a concordance of factors that all have to work together. Skin care is probably the most important aspect of overall beauty. Men especially, everyone can benefit from paying a little attention to their skin.

To keep your mascara from budging when you shed tears, angle your head as a way to get your tears to fall in such a way that they don’t run downward. This prevents tears from coming into contact with your makeup.

Take a break from heat styling periodically to allow your hair healthy and strong.

The big difference in those who have an attractive and well-groomed appearance and people who lack this refined presentation. Once you understand how to care for yourself properly, it will be much easier.

When trying to figure out how to make your physical beauty look better, it can be a wonderful feeling, especially when you have all the right tools to do it correctly. You can use these new techniques to boost your self-confidence and have others notice you more.

Beauty Tips All Women Must Know About

This article contains information on a number of common beauty concerns. Keep reading to see beauty trade secrets that can use these ideas everyday to be more beautiful.

Fill an empty pot or a tiny jar with your preferred moisturizer. Use a dab of moisturizer to freshen up when your skin is dry.

You can avoid sun by using a good sunscreen.When purchasing one, make sure you choose one with healthy ingredients and antioxidants. You can keep your skin looking younger and nourished with the use of these ingredients.

Make sure you aren’t allergic to your fake eyelashes. Put a small amount of the test area.

Coconut Oil

Instead of purchasing an expensive facial moisturizer, you can use coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil penetrates the skin with deep-penetrating moisture; it can also delay formation of wrinkles and smooths out wrinkles. It also adds benefits by eliminating the symptoms of acne, acne and psoriasis because of its antibacterial and anti-fungal properties.

Water hydrates skin and naturally removes toxins from your body, and this process can help you attain luminous skin.

Try using a small piece of any teabag to mend a torn fingernail. Finally, place it on the tear, and paint over it with clear nail polish.

Makeup Brushes

Invest in makeup brushes for applying your makeup. Although brushes can sometimes be very costly, they make a huge difference in the final quality of your appearance. You can find top quality makeup brushes online if you save money.

A good eye cream every night can prevent the best way to moisturize skin near the eyes. Keeping this skin can prevent dark circles, and will keep you from developing lines and wrinkles.

Rosewater or cucumbers can be used to treat dark circles under the eyes. These have natural treatments that will lighten the skin and cool your eye area. Dip a cotton pad into one of the two liquids, and remain like that for 15 minutes.

Wear sunscreen to keep your skin’s youth and healthy. Some people only use sunscreen when it is summer time, but if you are going to stave off wrinkles, you should wear it even in the winter. Your hands and face are most vulnerable during the winter.

When attempting to improve your appearance, the most important things to keep in mind are your clothes, fitness, skin, and fitness. If you work on each area, you can be more beautiful.

This can help your face time to breathe a bit and it allows it to stay healthy. You will see that your skin is more fresh a day later.

Try a loofah to get rid of your skin that are problematic or blemished. Combining a loofah with different body wash will give you excellent results! Use the loofah at least twice per week if you desire to get these benefits.

As you have read, there are various interesting techniques that can help you with your beauty regimen on a day-to-day basis and in the long term. Keep in mind that these tips are about letting you show your inner beauty, not hide who you are.

Wow Your Friends With These Simple Beauty Tricks

Most people want to look their best every day.It feels great to glance in the mirror and know you look great.

Put a few drops into the bottle and then shake it up.This helps add a few more applications of nail polish.

Whether you wax or shave, you’ll need to wait 24 hours so you can get the best tan results.This will ensure your tan is smooth and even.

Pimples appear unexpectedly and keep us from looking our best. Leave it to sit for roughly ten minutes or so. This should diminish the appearance of the pimple.

The follicles are wide open and will cause you some problems. This can also cause severe irritation.

Water naturally cleans the toxins from your body, resulting in clear and beautiful skin, all day long.

This provides the vitamins and minerals your body needs to keep your hair and stay healthy. You may also put rosemary essential oil on your hair and scalp for similar reasons.

Replace expensive, designer products with a gentle washcloth, toners and moisturizers with pure castile soap, a soft washcloth, a mild toner such as witch hazel or white vinegar, and other natural materials. These natural items will work wonderfully on any skin type. Tea tree oil can work as a toner for medicinal purposes.

Makeup artists rely on pink to draw the eye from problem areas on your face. It takes away the appearance of acne and puffed up red puffy eyes.

Skin Care

Beauty is the combining of many factors that all have to work together. Skin care plays a very long way in any effective beauty or grooming routine. Men have a tendency to overlook their skin, overlook the drastic difference that a small amount of skin care could make in their appearance.

If your face has a lot of dry skin, you may want to consider going to see a beautician and getting an intensive moisturizing treatment. This exfoliation process will rid dry facial skin by removing old cells and give you a more even appearance.

Beauty should not be considered a competition. You do not have to compete with someone else, but instead on your own efforts. You will be better off in all parts of your existence.

Skin care is vital if you want to maintain confidence and being healthy. You may also want to get a good lotion and use when your skin feels dry.

If your goal is to look and feel amazing, then you’re in the right spot! Feeling great about the way you look is an excellent feeling. Use these tips the next time you look in the mirror.

Look Great With These New Beauty Tips

If you are new to the beauty world, then you’re probably wondering how to go about creating your own beauty regimen with all the different products, techniques and applications that will allow you to begin a career in the field of beauty or develop your own beauty regimen. Here are a few tips and tricks to help make you look your beauty routine.

Allow your hair to air dry naturally as frequently as you can to best protect it. The hair and the scalp can really suffer from the curling iron, curling iron, and hair dryer. If you do need to use a blow dryer, put it on a low setting. Your hair will feel silky soft for years to come.

You can find beauty everywhere.Maybe you feel the trees in your yard are beautiful, or even your spouse or partner. When you look for beauty, you’ll find you feel more beautiful yourself.

The follicles are wide open from either process will cause problems. This can cause severe irritation to your skin.

You can adjust the style and color of your hair’s style and color to slim a fuller face. A cut that is long streaks can do the trick.You can also use lowlights and highlights. These are extremely flattering on almost all facial features.

Make sure your lip liners and eyeliner stays sharpened. This keeps them clean to use. A handy trick to help make sharpening of make-up pencils easy is to put them in the refrigerator or freezer for around 10 minutes.

Drink a lot of water every day to keep skin looking healthy and flawless-looking skin. Dehydration dries out skin dry and causes wrinkles. You can rehydrate your skin by getting in a minimum of eight daily servings of water. You can use flavors to inject some taste into your water tastier.Your skin is going to be grateful you do this!

Try using a small pieces of a teabag for torn fingernail. Put this piece on the damaged part, then you can paint this if you please.

Use a shimmer blush unless your skin is blemish-free and flawless. Shimmer blushes will accentuate imperfections such as scars and acne. You can keep an appearance of vibrant skin free of imperfections by masking blemishes with matte blush.

Makeup artists rely on the power of pink shades to distract from problem areas on the face. It actually lessens the appearance of acne and puffed up red eyes.

A cheap kitchen sponge. Kitchen sponges work equally as well as other types of sponges.

You do not want to attach fake eyelashes. Test it on your arm first to determine if you are allergic. Cover the glue and leave it untouched for 24 hours. If no rash develops, you are not allergic.

Epsom Salts

Epsom salts are a great beauty routine. Epsom salts can be used to soothe your muscles and a number of other health issues. You can then apply that to problem areas and leave it alone overnight. Your skin is going to look better in the time you wake up.

This can help your face time to breathe a bit and it allows it to stay healthy. You will see that your face looks a day later.

Apply lotion right after shaving for the best effect.Dry skin can cause ingrown hairs, and daily use of lotion can reduce this risk. This can help with getting rid of new ingrown hairs and will help them from not forming anymore.

To cut down on facial puffiness, hold an ice-cube with your tongue to the roof of your mouth and this will relax and relieve that “just dragged yourself out of bed” puffy face! Then splash your face with cold water, and you will see dramatic improvements in just a few minutes.

By following these easy tips, you can improve your appearance more than you might have thought possible. These tips will familiarize you with beauty secrets. You can apply them yourself and reap attractive results.

Natural Beauty Tips That Won’t Put You At Risk

Many people are under the impression that you are either beautiful or you don’t. This simply not true.This article will help you discover your beautiful traits and bring forth beauty. Beauty really goes beyond a pretty face because a good personality is also required.

Try a night-time application of Vaseline onto your feet. Your feet will be soft and smooth as a baby’s bottom.

Hair Dryer

Allow your hair to air dry as much as you can in order to protect it. When you are using a blow dryer combined with a straightening or curling iron, the result is a lot of heat being inflicted on your hair. If you really want to use a hair dryer, use the low heat setting on the hair dryer. Your hair will remain at its silky soft for many years.

Sunscreen is considered to be the health of beauty products. When choosing your sunscreen, try products that say they are good for your skin. You can keep your skin youthful and firmer with the right rich protecting ingredients.

Pimples can sometimes appear from nowhere at times and keep us from looking our best. Leave it on for roughly ten minutes. This will dry out your skin and should drastically reduce the redness and swelling of the blemish.

Try to eat the best foods for you if you want the best looking hair, nails and hair! Beauty will come from the inside in many ways. Your diet should consist of nutrients.

Use a shimmer blush unless your skin is blemish-free and flawless. Shimmer blushes will accentuate imperfections like scars or acne. You can keep an appearance of vibrant skin free of imperfections by masking blemishes with matte blush.

This feeds the nail growth because your new nail is being fed. Use a top coat when you polish your nails to avoid chipping.

Petroleum jelly can make your feet and toes.

When attempting to improve your appearance, think about clothes, posture, your posture, and skincare. When you focus on these features, you can make yourself more beautiful.

Make sure that you shave and then exfoliate prior to any application of a tanning spray. This will make the color go on evenly and it will also look less artificial.

The oldest beauty treatments tend to be the best ones out there. It will freshen and youth into your skin.

Visine should be a staple in the beauty kit. Red eyes do little for your face. Use a bit of Visine to help clear again. Visine is also an acne treatment. Just dab a little on the affected area and allow to dry. Your skin should look better in a short while.

Beauty isn’t simply something you just do or do not have. Even if you see yourself as an ugly duckling, you can make yourself pretty with the advice in this article. Concentrate on all of the wonderful things about you, then you won’t have time to worry about the things that you think are less than perfect.